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Indonesia : Review on Makassar’s GHG Inventory

To follow up on the previous discussion on the development of Greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory back in March 2020, IUC Asia and CCROM met the Makassar City agencies virtually on 29 September 2020.  The objective of the meeting is to share the interim result of the GHG emission profile as well as discuss the mitigation strategies and priorities. Approximately 30 city officials were present, representing various agencies comprised of Planning Development, Environment, Public Work, Food Security, Spatial Planning, Communication & Information Technology Agency.

The Head of City Planning Development Agency, Ms. Iriyani Ridwan, opened the meeting by reminding everyone to take solid action for tackling climate change. Shortages in key commodities have been reported in some parts of Makassar as the city copes with the double whammy of the coronavirus outbreak causing supply chain disruption and a dry spell hurting harvests.

Supported by CCROM, Makassar has nearly completed the 2019 GHG inventory report. The report has represented a snapshot of the GHG that Makassar emits from 2010 up to 2019, with the energy sector continues to be the largest contribution. The interim result has shown that CO2 emissions in 2019  have increased by about 34% compared to the 2010 level. In 2019, the energy sector contributed about 91% of the total GHG emissions, and the waste sector has been the second-largest contributor (8%). The rest, representing only a small amount, have been associated with the IPPU and AFOLU sector.

CO2 emissions from the residential sector have covered one-third of the total emissions. Households are responsible for a significant portion of the CO2 emission due to the use of fossil fuels for energy consumption. Households have consumed energy in two ways: direct emission (use of Liquefied petroleum gas /LPG for cooking) and indirect emission (grid electricity consumption).  The transportation sector has taken second place, accounting for 26% of 2019 total emissions. The GHG emission from the transportation sector has primarily involved fossil fuels burned for road, coming from petroleum-based fuels, largely gasoline and diesel. In the third and fourth places, there have been the industry sector (16% of total emission) and the commercial sector (15% of total emission), respectively. GHG emissions from those sectors primarily involve fossil fuels burned on-site at facilities for energy as well as indirect consumption from grid electricity consumption.

Understanding likely future trends in GHG emissions is important for city policy-making. To this end, CCROM has assisted Makassar city in developing scenarios describing plausible future trends in emissions. The most important among these scenarios is the baseline or business-as-usual scenario (BAU), which aims to characterize future emissions on the assumption that no new mitigation efforts and policies will be adopted. During the meeting, the projected 2030 emission was demonstrated, applying the Makassar’s GHG emissions for 2010 as the base year. The base year coincides with the latest year for which emissions inventory data are available.

With the energy sector projected to continuously dominate Makassar’s GHG emissions and will reach the level of 1.4 million tCO2e by 2030 under the BAU scenario, renewable energy sources and energy conservation offers significant emissions abatement potential.  Designing low-carbon urban transport systems is one of the key elements in taking mitigation measures on an urban scale. Therefore, CCROM emphasized setting the mitigation priorities and strategies for the transport sector. The evaluation for transport measures should be shifted from conventional economic evaluation for minimizing travel time and costs to environmental and social evaluation for improving sustainability under the constraint of economic budgets.  The potential mitigation measures have included providing rapid mass public transport, fossil fuel switching, pedestrian and bicycle lane network, the introduction of the electric vehicle.

Under the residential and commercial sectors, CCROM highlighted the importance of developing energy efficiency policies. The energy-efficiency standard for commercial building and energy labels on household appliances should be promoted.

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